Ventilation filters are one of the key elements of ventilation equipment. Originally, they only protected the ventilation system itself, but now they additionally filter the incoming airflow. That is why today no ventilation system can do without them.
Purpose and application of air filters
Air filters trap dust, dirt, allergens, and other harmful impurities. They also keep out insects, fluff, and other particles, preventing them from entering the room. At the same time, the filters protect the equipment from premature breakdowns and extend its service life. Filters are used absolutely in any ventilation system, regardless of where it is installed: in an apartment, office, factory. After all, all cases require high quality air purification.
Why are these ventilation accessories so important? And ask yourself the question: why do you install a ventilation system? To ensure a constant supply of clean fresh air, right? Well: without filters, the effectiveness of the equipment will be reduced to zero. Plus, these replacement elements prevent debris and dirt from accumulating inside the ventilation system. And in this simple way, you save on maintenance and repair costs.
Basic requirements for filters
Although it is a replacement part, the filter must ensure maximum airtightness. As such, it has a number of requirements:
- Ease of installation. The filter must be as airtight as possible. But it should be installed in such a way that it can be easily replaced.
- Strength. It must be able to withstand any loads during operation.
- Safety. It should not emit dust and other substances that would be harmful to health.
There is another important condition, but it already concerns the user specifically. It is about the fact that the filters should be regularly cleaned from dust. As a rule, every month. And when they get clogged up, they should be replaced with new ones. Otherwise, the filters will only pollute the air, not clean it.
Important criteria for choosing a ventilation filter Despite the simple design of this element, there are a number of nuances to consider when purchasing it. Therefore, below we will consider the main rules for choosing a filter for ventilation, as well as the key criteria. Degree of purification The first thing to look at is the degree of filtration. According to this parameter, it is easy to determine what can detain a particular model. Thus, the market offers filters:
- Coarse cleaning. Detain contaminants up to 10 microns in size. Installed on the 1st stage.
- Fine cleaning. Removes contaminants as small as 1 micron. Excellent performance when paired with the previous option.
- Ultra-fine cleaning. Removes up to 99% of particles down to 0.1 microns. Used in areas where sterility is required.
There shouldn’t be any difficulties with which filter to choose for ventilation. You just buy the same model that you are going to change.
Also, before you choose a filter for ventilation, you must first decide on the material of its manufacture. After all, this depends on two things at once: how long it will last and with what particles it will cope. There are 3 types of filters to choose from:
- Coal filters. They hold gaseous substances well (because charcoal is considered to be an excellent absorbent).
- Fibrous. They trap and retain fine particles.
- Bactericidal. Kills bacteria and germs.
Usually, several filters are installed in each system. And to achieve the best efficiency, they are combined, i.e. use different types.
How the ventilation filter works
Filters can be:
mechanical (detain coarse contaminants in the 1st stage, not letting them pass further);
Cell filters (placed on the 2nd stage, protect ventilation system from premature failure);
electrostatic (create an electromagnetic field, eliminating oil mist and aerosol substances);
HEPA (retains up to 98% of particles);
photocatalytic (oxidizes toxic impurities to minimize harm to the environment and people in the room);
oily (traps large particles and increases the quality of air purification);
Spongy (retain dust and various solid particles).
What to choose ventilation filter?
Here we just take into account under what conditions operated ventilation system, and for what tasks it is sharpened. And already, based on this, choose a filter for ventilation.
Design of filters
According to this parameter, filters are of 4 types. And each of them has its own nuances, which should always be kept in mind.
The key features of pocket models:
are created from durable synthetic fibers;
are used in apartments and houses, medical institutions, production facilities;
are characterized by high dust capacity and low resistance;
are characterized by reliability, durability, high fire safety.
Key features of cassette models:
are made of polyester fibers;
Have a rigid design, due to which they can withstand any load;
are used in households, medical institutions, production facilities;
are characterized by high dust capacity, low resistance; is distinguished by strength and durability.
Key features of panel elements:
- are made of different materials: polyurethane foam, polyester fibers (usually the latter option is used);
- are used in residential and industrial objects;
- are characterized by high dust capacity and excellent performance characteristics.
Key features of filter bags:
- are considered the most productive;
- are used in ventilation systems used in production;
- they are distinguished by good efficiency.
Filter bags qualitatively clean the air not only from dust and other impurities. They also perfectly retain various gases. Plus they can be changed without stopping the technological process.
Additional features to consider when choosing a filter
Above were listed the key criteria for choosing a filter for ventilation. But there are a number of additional nuances, which should also be considered. And they will be considered.
Categories of general purpose
Filters for ventilation can be general and special purpose. The first is used in all cases. And the latter – only when the air must be cleaned more thoroughly (for example, in the laboratory or industry).
In addition, general purpose models are divided into 3 subcategories:
- G-class – performs coarse cleaning, protects equipment and its elements;
- M-class – perform medium-duty cleaning;
- F-class – perform fine cleaning.
All these models are suitable for any ventilation system. But they are only capable of trapping dust (which, by the way, in most cases is required).
Special purpose categories
Special-purpose filters are also divided into several subcategories:
- E-class and H-class – have high efficiency;
- U-class – characterized by maximum efficiency.
Such models are designed to solve specific problems. For example, to capture odors and fats. They are highly effective, but also cost more than their general-purpose counterparts. That is why they are used only when more thorough air purification is required.
Although sometimes such filters are used in the home as well. For example, to provide a more comfortable environment for a person who suffers from allergies.
For accurate classification, manufacturers also indicate a number next to the letter. For example, E1, H9, U12. The higher the number, the more effective the model.